Deconstructing the Myths of Vampire Folklore and Examining the Truths of Modern Day Vampires

Why do we, as humans, have a long standing fascination with vampires? Is it our own morbid love affair with death? Or perhaps the twisted psyche of the unknown afterlife which has incarnated into this hideous, Earthly creature? It may be impossible to ever say. There is one thing for certain, however, and that is this: vampires have always, and will always, continue to emerge in various forms throughout history. They have already been with us for many generations, through a myriad ghoulish lore.

The earliest documented vampire lived in the mythology of Babylon. Below the Anunnaki (the judges of the realm of the dead who ruled the underworld), were four classes of genii: the sadu, vadukku, ekimu, and gallu. The ekimu was the first vampire, a spirit of evil. After that, the spirit of the vampire began to resurrect itself over and over again in different cultures. Various vampire beings can be found in the mythologies and folklore of: Assyria, China (Ch'Ing Shi, Ch'Ing Shuh), Japan, Crete (Kathakano), Mexico (Chupacabra, Cianteteo, Tlahuelpuchi), South America (Lobishomen), ancient Greece and Rome (Lamiai, Empusa, Ekimu, Bruculaco, Bruculak, Mormos, Striges, Lemures), Bulgaria (Krvopijac, Obour), Serbia (Vlkoslak, Mulo, Dhampir), Russia (Nocnitz, Myertovets, Vurdalak, Upierzhy), Croatia (Pijavica), Czechoslovakia (Vilkodlak), Romania (Strigoiul, Muronul, Drtakul), Transylvania (Nosferatu), Germany, Italy and Spain (Vampiro), Portugal (Bruxsa), Sweden (Vampyr), Finland, Poland (Upier, Upierzyca), Hungary (Vampir, Farkaskoldus, Liderc nadaly), India (Punyaiama, Jilaiya), Arabia (Ghul), Bosnia and Turkey (Vourdalak), Africa (Owenga, Otgiruru), Egypt, England and America (Succubus, Incubus, Vampire), Ireland (Dearg-dul), and Biblical (Lilith) and Jewish (Aluka) texts. The problem that one can foresee when studying these different types of vampires is that each culture’s definition of vampirism is a different one. For instance, while the Russian nocnitz sucks the blood of infant children while tickling them, the Bulgarian Obour subsists on feeding from manure. In order to approach defining vampirism in a modern day context, four questions must be asked:

1. What are Vampires?
2. Who are Vampires?
a. What do they look like?
b. How old are they?
c. How do they live their lives?
3. What are their customs, beliefs, norms, mores, etc?
4. Where do Vampires come from?

The first man to seriously study vampirism from a scientific and cultural platform was Dr. J. Gordon Melton. He believed that the inconsistencies in vampire lore could be explained as various cultures using vampire mythology as a coping technique for premature infant death. He cited, specifically, the Greek lamiai, which preyed on infants and pregnant women. This theory did not explain away all the myths, however. Remember the succubus (also known as the Old Hag) and the incubus, children of the demon-baring Lilith? These hideous spirits would crush men’s chests in their sleep and then proceed to rape them while on top, as popularized in 14th Century European folklore. The night creatures were exacting Lilith’s revenge on Adam’s sons; Adam, who demanded Lilith lie beneath him in intercourse. Dr. Melton then developed a second theory.

During the time period between 1700 and 1800, European burial mores were intricate to the extreme. Families of the deceased were to follow strict guidelines, or the bodies of the dead would return as vampires. Rules governed how to prepare the body, wrap it, bury it, and what sort of wake or funeral was to take place. Families were then to return to the burial site four to six months later, exhume the relative, clean the bones, and rebury them in order to complete the grief process. It was when the body was not at a normal stage of decay that the vampire myth began to emerge. If the surrounding ground was frozen during burial, the body was essentially preserved. When exhumed, the flesh would not have begun to rot, and this created the “undead” look popular to vampire myth. Sometimes bodies bloat, for various reasons, and this presumably exudes a “gorged” or “well fed” appearance to a corpse. The natural gas escaping a body plays a central part in these myths, as well. If the lungs contained blood at death, gas will push the blood from the lungs to spill out of the mouth and nose. Gas can also escape the body in sighs or groans from underground. If a family was afraid of the deceased haunting them as a vampire, sometimes they would stake the body as precaution. This resulted in an explosion of gas escaping in a loud hiss or scream from the corpse. After the popularization of burial processes being taken care of by social functionaries [undertakers], the vampire belief slowly fizzled out. It no longer served any purpose for social control. Of course, Melton didn’t even begin to tackle the other common European causes of vampirism: living a cruel/evil life, excommunication, lycanthropy, revenge, victimization by a previous vampire, and punishment for suicide (also upheld in African, Russian, Romanian, and Chinese beliefs).

Western medicine now offers its share of explanations for vampirism. Hematodipsia is a psychological affliction that causes an erotic fixation on the consumption of human blood. Xeroderma Pigmentosum; a genetic trait resulting in heightened sensitivity to garlic (although, the vampiric allergy to garlic is largely an invention of Bram Stoker). Lupus, or systemic lupus erythematosus, is a disease in which the immune system attacks various tissues of the body for no apparent reason. The wolf-like rash that appears on Lupus patients faces is linked to the early presence of werewolf lore- which has historically appeared closely interlaced with vampire mythology. The most popular medical explanation for vampirism is Porphyria, an inborn error in metabolism where the body cannot produce an adequate blood supply. This results in a pale white skin with strong sensitivity to light (as popularized by the 2001 film “The Others”), which can cause severe blistering. If undiagnosed, Porphyria can cause scarring around the mouth. The gums will pull back, and teeth become hideous and prominent. This has been linked to the myth of vampire fangs. In 1985, the American Association for the Advancement of Sciences were studying heme [blood] injection as a means of treatment for Porphyria patients. A paper was submitted that suggested early sufferers of Porphyria drank blood as a self-regulated treatment device. The paper was met with strong opposition and outrage. The science community cited lack of evidence. The medical community pointed out that ingestion of blood would have no effect on the disease. Of course, the media disregarded these facts and seized the story like wildfire. An urban legend was born.

With the handy explanation of Porphyria, hundreds of years of vampire mythology was explained away to modern society. It has become simply “a scary story,” told most eloquently by the likes of Bram Stoker and Anne Rice. Many excellent, and classic, horror movies have featured the beast- including the enigmatic “Nosferatu.” But like this elusive film, the lines between reality and lore blur far more than meets the eye. Many of us have heard a few news stories over the years, claiming that a “vampire cult” had exsanguinated an entire farmer’s stock of cattle, or brutally raped a young woman in a crowded metropolis as Satanic ritual. We may gloss over these stories, citing them as “despicable” or “unfortunate,” and filling away the culprits as escaped mental cases in far off locations. We feel safe. We move on. But, what many of us don’t realize is that there are many, many people who work where we work, walk their dogs in the same parks we do, frequent the same bars at happy hour, that believe themselves to be vampires. They are members of no cults. They do not wear long black capes, sprout fangs, worship Satan, or sleep in coffins. They are modern day vampires, and they are more prevalent than anyone wants to acknowledge.

Modern day vampires have recently been dubbed Human Living Vampires [HLVs] by Arthen Inanna. Although the coupling of ‘Human’ and ‘Vampire’ may seem an ill-matched phrase, I believe this term to be an excellent one and will use it throughout the paper for reasons which will become apparent later. HLVs can be divided up into two major feeding preferences: sanguine [blood] (sang) and psychic (psi). It should be noted that that these are merely preferences, and are not set in stone. Many HLVs have tried both at some point, but prefer one over the other. I will begin with sanguine vampires, since blood feeding is what human’s typically associate with vampirism.

Sanguine vampires have all cited an “awakening” to blood hunger between the ages of five and twenty, typically. The average awakenings occur either in very early childhood, or early adulthood, with only a smattering of HLVs claiming to have awakened in their teens. With those whom I have talked to, HLVs describe this awakening experience as a sense of unquenchable hunger or ache of “something missing.” These feelings may go on for quite awhile, and attempt to be quenched with various substances (drugs, alcohol, sex, foods), until the individual discovers that blood is what they had been craving. Some examples of early awakening experiences include HLVs ingesting their own blood, that of close friends or significant others (through scrapes or knicks), and sometimes that of packaged meat. In all cases I have heard of, these first sang experiences are innocent curiosities in nature and harm or violence is never inflicted.

Once the individual has awakened, they will begin to network arranged donors for regular feeding. Donors and HLVs do not typically have sexual relationships, contrary to popular belief perpetuated by Anne Rice and confusion with vampirism and blood fetishists. It is not always the case, but HLVs tend to arrange donors of the opposite sex. With male HLVs, I have found that they do this to avoid any misconceptions of homosexuality. Female HLVs are less concerned with this issue, perhaps because AIDs is more commonly stigmatized with male-on-male blood sharing. However, neither male or female HLVs will ever consider a donor who refuses to be tested. Thorough testing and precautions (for STDs, diseases, and drugs) are taken before choosing a donor. This, of course, only applies to human donors. There is the rare occasion of a Sang using an animal, or raw meat, as a feed source. Sangs find their donors any number of ways. They may approach a trusted friend, someone they have met socially and feel will be open to the idea, or use the Internet. Amazingly, e-mail newsgroups have been formed specifically for the advertisement of donors. HLVs will advertise, and donors will donate themselves for various payments: usually money, and sometimes sexual favors. Occasionally, HLVs will feed on other HLVs. There is no merit to the supposed blood hierarchy, and therefore no benefit to a vampire donor. However, this usually isn’t a long term practice in that one vampire giving themselves as a donor only makes them feel even more drained of energy, and defeats their own feeding need.

There are two ways that Sangs feed from their donors: direct and indirect feeding. Direct feeding is fairly popular when a trusting relationship has been formed between HLV and donor. Direct feeding involves small cuts or lacerations with a clean razor or blade, made to the chest, shoulders, or upper arms. Cuts are never made over major veins or arteries (such as the neck), and are kept to areas which are well “padded.” Direct feeding requires skin-to-mouth contact. Although sensationalism has imprinted the image of a vampire calmly biting into their innocent victim’s neck, you’d be hard pressed to ever find something like this in reality. One must consider the amount of pain and gore that would go into biting hard enough to break the skin. It would most certainly be a violent encounter. I have not once spoken with an HLV that would condone such an act, let alone causing harm to their donor. Blood fetishists might indulge in such behaviors, but that is not the subject of this writing and I am far too ignorant to comment. I would like to note here that Sang vampires do not kill their donors by feeding on them, as perpetuated by vampire literature. Safety is a major precaution taken by both sides. HLVs often have trouble finding a willing partner to donate, and are grateful when one is obtained. To kill, or cause major harm to their donor, would also be detrimental to the HLV. Also contrary to vampire lore, donors do not themselves become vampires by living through a vampire feeding (vampirism is not a contagious disease, that much we know). Indirect feeding is more common, and involves the use of medical syringes. The blood is then orally ingested, and the process is less intimate.

The frequency and amount of feeding is unique to the HLV. Some Sangs need only a few drops of blood to sustain them, while others need nearly a full cup. This would be considered a lot, however. Although I have found no real ‘average,’ it appears that most Sangs do not feed on more than a few ounces of blood per feeding. The frequency of feeding is nearly impossible to classify. Every HLV is truly different in this respect. I have talked to some who feed once a year, some who feed every few months, and others who must feed weekly. ‘Must’ is a very important word in that sentence. The affects of “blood draught” on a vampire are astounding. In my talks with HLVs, I have come to understand their experiences as something akin to withdrawal. When an HLV does not feed frequently enough to quench their hunger, they begin to go through an array of painful symptoms: lethargy, weakened immune system, a ‘thin’ sensation (mentally & emotionally), rapid weight loss, chronic migraines, shaking, vomiting or nausea, and stomach cramps. Female HLVs also experience unusual menstrual flow, and noticeably stronger PMS and cramping.

Temporary solutions for Sangs, until they can feed again, are rare/raw meat, blood from meat packaging, dairy products, and orange juice (sometimes mixed with iron pills). HLVs have told me that these solutions may alleviate their symptoms for a short period (hours or a day, at most) but are not suffice. If they cannot get to a donor, HLVs will go into what some of them have dubbed “hibernation.” Much as it sounds, this involves shutting down their systems (a somewhat unpleasant experience) until they can feed again. Usually, however, they report that light symptoms such as migraines and stomach pains persist. Some Sangs will also begin to psychic feed if they have the energy.

Psychic feeding is a draining of energy from a donor. Although not embraced in the West, Eastern philosophies, religions, and healing practices (such as acupuncture) have reported an electric energy field around the body [an “aura”] for centuries. Psi vampires are able to tap into this energy field, and literally drain or siphon it off. In all of the Psi HLVs I have talked to, all report this ability as inherent since birth.

In early awakenings, Psi HLVs report not having been aware of when they were feeding, aware of what they were experiencing, or able to control this ability. Gradually, however, they learn that this sensation is a feeding technique and can “turn it off and on.” It should be noted that psychic HLVs do not tend to associate themselves with the term ‘vampire’ until a later age than sanguine vampires. Perhaps this is because vampirism is so exclusively written about as a blood drinking activity in literature. What is vampirism, anyway, but the act of stealing or taking from an innocent victim? Does this not apply to any source: blood or energy?

Unlike Sang vampires, Psi vampires very rarely ask permission to feed from donors, even when feeding one-on-one. Most of the time, donors to Psi HLVs have no idea they are being fed from. Psi vampires usually feed from large sources, such as rooms of people, music concerts, or large spaces (malls, parks, etc). I have spoken to a few Psi HLVs who express it as “moving around the area and gleaning small bits from each person.” Psi HLVs tend to gravitate towards persons exhibiting strong negative energy, such as someone having a loud argument on a cell phone, to feed from. With this ability to group feed, the public arena is a veritable buffet for a psychic vampire. Although a Psi HLV will occasionally try sang feeding for the experience, these vampires almost never experience draught or hibernation as Sangs do. Although with large groups of people, Psi HLVs can feed without anyone being none the wiser, some HLVs have reported donors becoming sick when feeding one-on-one. Donors have been known to immediately become ill, have severe chills, turn white, and exhibit exhaustion. On the flip-side, some donors have reported a loss of physical pain in a concentrated area, and a renewed energetic sensation. I am, as of yet, undecided if psychic feeding is a positive or negative experience for donors due to lack of conclusive evidence, although I will report that the intent of the Psi HLV plays a pivotal role in the donor’s response. For example, in instances where the HLV has asked permission to psychically feed from a source of discomfort for the donor, it results in a positive experience for both parties involved. While the donor may have ridded themselves of a stress related ache or pain, the Psi HLV has also had an opportunity to feed.

Once an HLV has fed, Sang or Psi, they report a sense of “fullness” much like gorging yourself on a lavish meal. In my talks, they have articulated it as a sense of “wholeness” that had previously seemed missing. They feel more alive, fresh, and vigorous. All tell me that their energy levels shoot up after a feeding, and remain on a “high” for an indeterminate amount of time (again, depending on the individual’s frequency of feeding). Much as in a psychological manic phase, emotionally their moods brighten, become jovial, and exude characteristic vampire charm (as popularized by Bram Stoker’s “Dracula”).

Cultural folklore has mixed and muddled together, along with modern day pop culture, to form the standard image on vampires in our society. Even the youngest child could rattle off the mythological check-list of vampire characteristics. Would they hold true to our modern vampire incarnate? Only somewhat. HLVs do report unusual life experiences. I have talked to an HLV that has lived through several near death experiences. Others have experienced shared dreams with close friends and loves ones, sometimes even while in other countries. Another of the HLVs that I have talked with reports fulfilling early prophecies that she thought hogwash at the time. She also reports that she, and her friends, have often seen her accompanied by a male entity dressed all in black. Some HLVs have the ability to astrally project themselves, and others have heightened psychic abilities. The question that begins to formulate here is, are these experiences any more or different than those of normal human beings? Society is awash with stories of near death experiences and psychic ability, and those people do not claim vampirism. Are modern day vampires more susceptible to paranormal experiences because of who they are, or are they on par with the rest of humankind?

When discussing vampirism, one must inevitably bring themselves to the most thrilling part of vampire folklore. How to kill a vampire. Every culture has its gruesome, and sometimes extensive, vampire killing recipe. I’ve read instructions that range from horrific (staking the vampire to a tree with daggers and spooning out their eyeballs) to mild (lure them into the sunlight with a bowl of rice). In my eagerness to discuss these matters with HLVs, they disappointed me by only affirming one vampire legend. A few HLVs report extremely mild aversions to sunlight. If exposed to the sun too long, some begin to have sore eyes, a dull stinging sensation against their skin, and become lethargic. Stand in the direct sun for several hours, however, and any Earthly human will report the same sensations. HLVs all agree that although this is ironic, it doesn’t supersede anything above human experience.

The conclusion that is beginning to appear here, is in fact that modern vampires are no more powerful than humans. Vampires are not immortal. They too worry about blood born diseases, and get themselves checked regularly (as well as their donors). They live the average human lifespan, and are susceptible to common colds and the flu just like us. They do not have superhuman strength, agility, or stamina. They cannot walk on the ceiling or fly at you through the window. They do not turn into bats at dawn. They are not invincible. If you stake one in the heart, of course they will die. Anybody would. HLVs do not have any supernatural powers outside of the reported human realm of ability. They cannot approach you in a dark alley and bend your will to let them bite your neck.

In fact, HLVs do not even resemble our conception of vampires. Most of them work day jobs, have families, and go grocery shopping. It is pure misinformation when articles publish ideas that modern vampires sleep during the day, and work night jobs as janitors at blood banks. This is sensationalism to feed into our idea of vampirism. Nobody wants to read about the vampire that works at Sears and has two kids. It’s not evil enough for us. However, this is reality. HLVs do not wear signs around their neck advertising who they are, much like we do not advertise our religious affiliation or sexualities (unless we want to). This is their private life. They dress normally and blend in to the best of their ability, if they so wish. A professional male HLV I talk with wears a suit and tie to work everyday. Occasionally, you will see some modern day vampires who dress “gothic” or “hard rock,” and these are usually the younger HLVs. Again, there are plenty of non-vampire teenagers and young adults who dress this way. It’s a personal choice, not a lifestyle demand. Basically, HLVs do not look like anything outside of normal human appearances. They hold normal jobs. They marry and have kids. They adhere to the rules and laws of society. It is because of this that I have adopted the term: Human Living Vampire.

Although I am painting a rosy picture of HLVs, not all of them are nice (as not all humans are, either). There are many, many vampire cults. I have not spoken to any HLVs currently in a cult at this time, nor have I communicated with any cults at all. I hesitate to include vampire cultism in this writing, due to my lack of first hand knowledge, but it is important to mention. Vampire cults are prevalent across the world, but I will speak strictly about the cults here in the United States. Currently, I know of four major vampire cults acting in the US: Sanguinarium, House Kheperu, House Sahjaza, and Strigoi VII [7]. Vampire cults prey on the insecurities of individuals. Ironically, most HLVs will tell you that vampire cults are not filled with true vampires, but lonely, insecure young adults who have been convinced that because society does not embrace them, they are vampires. Vampire cults actively seek out their members through recruiting. Most modern vampires, once they have “outed” their identities through friends or the Internet, will be approached by a cult for membership. Cults also recruit by throwing ‘vampire only’ parties, frequenting night clubs, the Internet, and through networking. They charge money for their membership. Once initiated, members are very much encouraged into the cult mentality. Sanguinarium, House Kheperu, and House Sahjaza all regulate their members under The Black Veil. The Black Veil is also known as The 13 Rules of the Community, and is defined as “a voluntary standard of common sense, etiquette and ideals for the greater vampyre/vampire community.” The thirteen rules are divided up as follows: discretion, diversity, safety, control, lifestyle, family, havens, territory, responsibility, elders, donors, leadership, and ideals. Some quotes from The Black Veil are:

(1) “We cannot let petty differences of ideology prevent us from maintaining a unified community, there are enough who would attack us from the outside.”

(2) “We cannot and should not deny the darkness within.. Celebrate the darkness and let it empower you.”

(3) “We are, all of us, a family.. Do not let your individual problems bring emotional strife to the family as a whole.”

These three quotes are just a few from The Black Veil which illustrate the cult encouragement towards hatred for the ‘outside world,’ violence or evil, and group mentality. Although The Black Veil states that these rules are voluntary, I have been told that the hierarchies within cults hold their own court trials if rules are broken. Members can be tried and eliminated for not upholding the cult ideals.

Vampire cults encourage the spread of violence and hatred in the name of vampirism. I am tentative to mention murder, although it is occasionally brought up in news stories. I have not thoroughly investigated these stories, and have not spoken with any HLVs who can affirm these facts, and therefore will decline to state any opinions. Date rape and underage rape, however, are another story. I am aware of a specific word, invented by the cults, which is ‘code’ for a male vampire to command a young girl to perform fellatio. According to what I’ve been told, if this word is uttered, the rules of the cult demand that the girl perform the act without protest- as if, perhaps, to simulate a ‘black magic spell’. Unfortunately, because vampire cults are so active in unprotected, ‘kink’ sexual acts, they are responsible for the spread of an alarming amount of AIDS, STDs, and blood born diseases. Along with sexual games, cults engage in drug usage and petty crimes, all in the name of “embrac[ing] the darkness within.” It is vampire cultism that has smeared the name of vampirism, and linked it with Satanism, to most of society. It should be noted here, that there is a major rift between the HLVs and vampire cults. Both sides, to put it mildly, are not very fond of each other. HLVs are unhappy and disgusted with the acts that these cults perpetuate in their name, and the victimization of young people. Vampire cults, perhaps, are angry that HLVs do not act as they feel modern vampires should. In any case, the subject of vampire cultism is a dark and shameful one.

So, where do vampires come from? This is perhaps the most interesting, and continually debated topic, amongst humans and vampires. One strong theory is biology. Often in nature today, even the most unexplainable can be broken down into pure, logical science. The key is to ask an impertinent question, form a hypothesis, and test it. Unfortunately, science has yet to take vampirism seriously and it may be awhile before any sort of testing takes place. We are left with only hypotheses. Some think that vampirism is an undiscovered genetic defect, much like the aforementioned Porphyria or Lupus. Genetic testing, such as the Human Genome Project, could reveal a vampirism disease. Or, is it possible that science could reveal vampires to be an evolutionary throwback? They have been with us for hundreds of years, preserved in the pages of literature. Is it possible these stories were true, if not exaggerated? Perhaps vampires are an early form of man gone awry, a future evolution of man, or a brother to man, that have lived alongside us for generations. It is something to consider.

Then there are those who believe that although all these people believe themselves vampires, they are truly not. The psychological community would theorize that these individuals are mentally ill and using vampirism as a coping device. Freudians would theorize that these individuals are projecting onto the vampire stories they knew from childhood. Modern psychiatry would explain their physical symptoms of “blood draught” as acting out their illnesses, much like mental patients act out more often once institutionalized because they ‘believe’ they are sick. These people ‘believe’ they are vampires, and begin to exhibit those characteristics. Is it indeed the placebo affect causing all these people to live their lives as HLVs?

Or, could it possibly be that they are indeed what they say; modern living vampires? Could it be that we are living amongst true human living vampires? Perhaps, it is. It could very well be that by some spiritual predisposition that we are yet to comprehend, the vampire has emerged on Earth. They need the life force, through blood or energy, to survive. They have always been with us, feeding on whatever sources they could, until evolving into the HLVs we know today. Perhaps they are souls resonating at denser energies? Perhaps they are yet another paranormal species, much like the popular aliens of today, that instead of living in the skies, live right here amongst us? It is not as far fetched as it seems. Every day, more new species are discovered living right here on Earth than we ever though possible.

The universe abhors normality.

Special Thanks To: The vampire community over at VO, most especially Demon, Misery, and Jools Dawn. Raven, for loaning me her surveys. David K, for his support and shared enthusiasm. Layna, for beta and reminding me of the path.

Belanger, Michelle, COVICA, Father Todd. “The 13 Rules of the Community: The
Black Veil.” Sanguinarium. 28 April 2002.

Blak, Lady. Personal Interview. 4 May 2002.

Dawn, Jools. Personal Interview. 30 April 2002.

Demon. Personal Interview. 13 April 2002.
-- 19 April 2002.
-- 20 April 2002.
-- 27 April 2002.
-- 5 May 2002.

Goldman, Jane. The X-Files: Book of the Unexplained. 2 vols. New York:
HarperPrism, 1996.

Human Living Vampires (and Other Human Vampiric People). Arthen Inanna. 10
April 2002.

Marvin, Kay, ed. Devils and Demons: A Treasury of Fiendish Tales Old and New.
New York: Dorset Press, 1987.

Misery. Telephone Interview. 14 May 2002.

O’Duibhne, Diarmuid. Personal Interview. 4 May 2002.

Lilith. Flame and Sealwyf. 20 August 2002.

Lore of the Vampire. DanaRae Proctor. 20 August 2002.

Ronay, Gabriel. The Truth About Dracula. New York: Scarborough House, 1972.

Stars, Howling. Personal Interview. 4 May 2002.

Telal, Shiru. Personal Interview. 4 May 2002.

Vampires of Tlaxcala Mexico. Holly Turner. 20 August 2002.

Author: Bailey Mackenzie


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